Each focus conducted case studies of digital dynamic, interactive or experiential records produced in the various areas of endeavour that it was concerned with to gather an understanding of the activities creating the records, their purpose, their phases and the component actions, their by-products and their structure, and their context, but also their technological environment and their use. The findings of the case studies provided much of the data necessary to answer the research questions of all domains and cross-domains. For information on the selection and conduct of case studies see the Call for Case Study Proposals, Compliance with Requirements for the Protection of Human Research Subjects and Data, Consent to Participate in the research, Interviewee Permission Agreement, 23 case study questions that the researchers should be able to answer at the completion of their investigations, list of possible questions for interviewees, questions to keep in mind for the domain and cross-domain research, and the Case Study Reporting Framework.

FOCUS 1 - Artistic Activities

CS01 - Arbo Cyber, Théâtre (?)
This case study focuses on the work of Arbo Cyber, Théâtre (?), a company whose artistic output involves performing arts, visual arts and media arts. Arbo has created over 20 performances, numerous laboratories and school workshops between 1985 and 2001. In an effort to preserve their work, members of Arbo are now seeking to digitize their artistic works. The case study team was interested in following the processes of digitization and transformation of the creative materials created by Arbo in the course of realizing its original productions.

CS02 - Performance Artist Stelarc
Stelarc is an artist who frequently collaborates with computer programmers, technicians and scientists. His art is exhibited or performed in diverse environments, including galleries, aerial suspensions and the Internet. The case study team was interested in learning where record creation begins and ends with Stelarc’s art. In addition, the fragility of the environments in which the works are created and performed raised questions relating to issues of reliability and authenticity.

CS03 - Horizon Zero/Zero Horizon Online Magazine and Media Database
The Horizon Zero/Zero Horizon online magazine focuses on digital art in Canada. The magazine’s digital assets are stored as unique objects in a database system. The database system will grow over the lifespan of the magazine and serve as a searchable content repository. The case study team investigated the distinction between digital records and publications. The findings of this case study help answer the research questions relating to the nature of the records and processes that create and maintain them, and questions relating to the concepts of reliability, accuracy and authenticity.

CS09 - Digital Moving images - Inputs, Processes and Outputs
This case study sought to build a model describing and explaining the processes involved in creating digital moving image products and the by-products resulting from those processes. The case study team followed four different digitally-created productions through the stages of pre-production, production and post-production. Among its many objectives, this study sought to identify the digital entities created at each stage of the process, model the structure of each digital entity and show the relationships between the digital entities and their relationships to the overall production.

CS10 - The Danube Exodus: Interactive Multimedia Piece
This case study examines the processes, products and by-products involved in creating an interactive multimedia piece that has taken two forms; a gallery installation and a Web site. The gallery installation is no longer active but the Web site is still live. The issue of possible future manifestations are also examined. This case study offers the opportunity to examine issues of reliability and authenticity within a virtual and hybrid context.

CS13 - Obsessed Again...
Obsessed Again… is a work for bassoon and interactive electronics written in 1992 by Canadian composer, Keith Hamel. The work was designed to use commercial hardware and software but the required equipment is quickly becoming obsolete. The commissioner of the work has expressed a wish to reconstitute the work. The case study’s objectives included identifying both digital and non-digital documents associated with the work, articulating the requirements for musical authenticity based upon the documents, building a performable, authentic realization of the work, and developing a method for the future storage, retrieval, migration and access of the work.

CS15 - Waking Dream
Waking Dream is a performance piece for two people using multiple theatrical elements. The goals of this case study were to identify the digital and non-digital components such as software, hardware designs and audio; articulate the requirements for performance authenticity for the piece; build a performable, authentic realization of the piece; and develop methods for future storage, retrieval and migration of, and access to, the work.

CS22 - Electronic Café International: Aging Records from Technology-based Artistic Activities
The Electronic Café Intentional (ECI) is a multimedia international network for showcasing creative, multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, collaborative telecommunications. This case study deals with a wide variety of media types that now pose the problems of aging and obsolescent formats. ECI’s activities took place from the mid-1970s to the present, and incorporated experiences that were dynamic and interactive, which is the focus of InterPARES 2 research. This study highlights the problems posed by interactive, experiential, and dynamic records many years after they were initially created.

FOCUS 2 - Scientific Activities

CS06 - CyberCartographic Atlas of Antarctica
The CyberCartographic Atlas of Antarctica is a research project borne out of a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). This project explores the new theoretical construct of CyberCartography, which sees the map as a new organizing mechanism for digital information in the information era. The dynamic, multidimensional, multisensory and multimedia Atlas will become an important scientific digital knowledge asset that will, from its inception, include archiving as an integral component of the project. The objectives of this case study were to explore the process of record creation, the function of the record within the activity in which it participates and to determine which of a record’s features allow its authenticity to be determined to ensure that its authenticity is kept intact over time within the context of the CyberCartographic project.

CS08 - Mars Global Surveyor Data Records in the Planetary Data System
This case study attempts to validate the IDEF(0) model for the Preservation of Electronic Records that was developed in the InterPARES 1 Project. The case study records were created by a NASA Spacecraft Mission Operation and a NASA Space Science Data (and Records) Archive.

CS14 - Archaeological Records in a Geographical Information System: Research in the American Southwest
This case study focuses on records from geographic information systems (GIS) that were created by the Center for Desert Archaeology in Tucson, Arizona. Specifically, it examines how these records were created, what their disposition is, what happens after disposition, and their corresponding authenticity, reliability and accuracy while undergoing these processes. GIS records are interactive digital records that are increasingly being created in the archaeological context. Another focus of the study is how the perception of records is related to the concept of memory to archaeologists, the related (human) landscapes and to the descendants of the areas that are studied by archaeologists.

CS19 - Preservation and Authentication of Electronic Engineering and Manufacturing Records
The electronic engineering and manufacturing records that are examined in this case study have been created in computer-assisted engineering, computer-assisted design and industrial automation systems. The focus of this case study is on examining the ability of complex engineering records to stand for the solid objects modeled in the records, and the ability of the manufacturing records to represent the processes required to produce such solid objects.

CS26 - MOST Satellite Mission: Preservation of Space Telescope Data
This case study examines how MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of Stars), a scientific research project in astronomy, manages its unique data that are transmitted from a telescope in space. The study investigates how the data can be preserved, how technological restraints complicate the creation, maintenance and preservation of the data, and how future researchers can be assured that the preserved data are reliable, authentic and accurate. This study also explores the effect of the business process on the various phases of the life-cycle of the data and records, and examines how researchers interpret accuracy, reliability and authenticity in the setting of scientific research.

FOCUS 3 - e-Government Activities

CS05 - Archives of Ontario Web Site Exhibits
This case study examines three online exhibits developed by the Archives of Ontario as a means to enhance access to its holdings. Specifically, this study investigates the experiential and interactive records that emerge from the creation and posting of these exhibits, and the present and potential uses of these records within the government sector.

CS12 - Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database
This case study focuses on applications of the Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database to the organization, cost-effective management and knowledge-discovery of public-domain legal records that are created by governments. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database was part of a two-year National Science foundation project through the National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library (NSDL). The objectives of this case study included determining the functional and conceptual challenges of modeling the creation and preservation of digital records, and determining the technical and administrative challenges of repurposing public-domain records.

CS17 - New York State Department of Motor Vehicles On-line Services System
This case study examines the online services offered by New York State’s Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). Users conduct legal and financial transactions within the DMV’s Web site, which generates records in a networked and online environment. The DMV’s highly interactive online system features a complex set of interwoven electronic activities. Of specific interest are issues relating to records creation and maintenance within the online system, issues relating to ensuring accuracy, authenticity and reliability in the DMV’s recordkeeping system, and issues relating to technology.

CS18 - Computerization of Alsace-Moselle's Land Registry
This case study examines the creation of a computerized land registry in Alsace-Moselle, a French, regional administrative entity. Each entry requires the signature of a judge, using a PKI combining biometric access and digital signatures. The focus of this case study is on digital signatures within a dynamic information system designed to improve the efficiency of government-citizen relations in the context of the French civil law evidence system. The research team also investigates the difference between authentication and authenticity, the design and implementation of a dynamic information system in the e-government area, and how relevant regulatory frameworks can better harmonize with archival requirements.

CS20 - Revenue On-line Services (ROS)
This case study investigates the Revenue Commissioners of Ireland’s Revenue On-line Services system, which enables the generation, maintenance, access and preservation of electronic-based tax and other records in a secure and appropriate environment. The research team also examines the metadata models and standards used for information creation and exchange, issues of accuracy, authenticity and reliability as they relate to ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of information supplied by users, and research disposition and appraisal decisions for electronic records in a working environment.

CS21 - Electronic Filing System (EFS) of the Supreme Court in Singapore
The Electronic Filing System is an online filing system of records of civil matters that is meant to facilitate the process of civil litigation through e-filing and electronic information services, as well as to implement the use of electronic documents in electronic chambers or electronic courts. This case study subject allowed the analysis of reliability and authenticity of e-government services in the courts within the context of Singapore’s juridical system. In addition, the records creation process, appraisal and preservation of the records created within EFS, and the policies, procedures and standards taken to control the creation, modification and preservation of records are examined.

CS24 - Preservation of the City of Vancouver Geographic Information System (VanMap)
VanMap is an extensive database of geographic data on the City of Vancouver maintained by the City’s Information Technology Department. The data are supplied and updated on a regular basis by the Engineering, Planning, Social Planning, Permits and Licenses, Real Estate Services and other departments, and to a much lesser extent by external agencies such as the provincial government and crown agencies. The fundamental purpose of VanMap is to meet the needs of internal users in providing services to Vancouver’s citizens and businesses. The goals of this case study were to determine and understand the types of records that are generated by the database, and to explore issues relating to security, recordkeeping and long-term preservation.

CS25 - Legacoop Bologna Web Site
Legacoop Bologna is an association of enterprises operating in the Bologna area to promote the development of cooperation, mutual aid and solidarity, stimulate economic relationships among member cooperatives, and spread the principles and values of the cooperation ideal. Its Web site provides detailed and specialized information on the world of the cooperative, and facts about the economic and social situation within the local territory. It also offers online interactive services to its members. This case study explores the policy issues that arise when a Web site containing interactive private records is preserved over the long term.

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